Genética del paisaje: una disciplina joven pero bien consolidada

Majela Hernández Rodríguez

Resumen


La genética del paisaje integra la genética poblacional, la ecología del paisaje y las estadísticas espaciales para cuantificar el efecto de la composición del paisaje, la configuración y la calidad de la matriz en el flujo de genes y la variación genética espacial. Estos estudios permiten analizar la influencia de las variables del paisaje en la variación genética, identificar barreras al flujo de genes, evaluar y crear corredores biológicos, entender la escala espacial y temporal de los procesos ecológicos, probar hipótesis evolutivas especie-específicas y apoyar medidas de manejo en especies amenazadas. En apenas dos décadas de investigaciones de genética del paisaje se han perfeccionado las herramientas y métodos de análisis genéticos y espaciales que emplea esta disciplina. A pesar de sus potencialidades, no existen estudios en Cuba en este campo, por lo que la presente revisión ofrece una panorámica general del estado actual de la genética del paisaje como disciplina, sus aplicaciones y los principales métodos de análisis que permiten correlacionar los patrones genéticos con las características ambientales. La creación de equipos multidisciplinarios de trabajo que permitan realizar estudios complejos y bien fundamentados desde ambas disciplinas (la genética poblacional y la ecología del paisaje), podría garantizar el surgimiento y expansión de las investigaciones de genética del paisaje en la comunidad científica cubana.

Citación: Hernández, M. 2020. Genética del paisaje: una disciplina joven pero bien consolidada. Revista Jard. Bot. Nac. Univ. Habana41: 1-13.

Recibido: 15 de noviembre de 2019. Aceptado: 17 de enero de 2020. Publicado en línea: 3 de junio de 2020. Editor encargado: Luis Manuel Leyva.


Palabras clave


aislamiento por distancia; análisis espacial; ecología del paisaje; genética poblacional


Estadísticas de Vistas/View Statistics: Resumen - 823 ; PDF - 166


Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


Adriaensen, F., Chardon, J.P., De Blust, G., Swinnen, E., Villalba, S., Gulinck, H. & Matthysen, E. 2003. The application of ‘least-cost’ modelling as a functional landscape model. Landscape and urban planning 64(4): 233-247.

Anderson, C.D., Epperson, B.K., Fortin, M.J., Holderegger, R., James, P.M.A., Rosenberg, M.S., Scribner, K.T. & Spear, S. 2010. Considering spatial and temporal scale in landscape-enetic studies of gene flow. Mol. Ecol. 19: 3565-3575.

Angelone, S., Kienast, F. & Holderegger, R. 2011. Where movement happens: scale-dependent landscape effects on genetic differentiation in the European tree frog. Ecography 34(5): 714-722.

Angers, B., Magnan, P., Plante, M. & Bernatchez, L. 1999. Canonical correspondence analysis for estimating spatial and environmental effects on microsatellite gene diversity in brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis). Mol. Ecol. 8: 1043-1053.

Aparicio, A., Hampe, A., Fernández-Carrillo L. & Albaladejo, R.G. 2012. Fragmentation and comparative genetic structure of four mediterranean woody species: complex interactions between life history traits and the landscape context. Diversity and Distributions 18: 226-235.

Apodaca, J.J., Rissler, L.J. & Godwin, J.C. 2012. Population structure and gene flow in a heavily disturbed habitat: implications for the management of the imperilled Red Hills salamander (Phaeognathus hubrichti). Conservation Genetics 13(4): 913-923.

Balkenhol, N., Waits P.W. & Dezzani, R.J. 2009. Statistical approaches in landscape genetics: an evaluation of methods for linking landscape and genetic data. Ecography 32: 818-830.

Banks, S.C., Lindenmayer, D.B., Ward, S.J. & Taylor, A.C. 2005. The effects of habitat fragmentation via forestry plantation establishment on spatial genotypic structure in the small marsupial carnivore, Antechinus agilis. Mol. Ecol. 14: 1667-1680.

Barbujani, G. 2000. Geographic patterns: how to identify them and why. Hum. Biol. 72: 133-153.

Barros, T., Carvalho, J., Fonseca, C. & Cushman, S.A. 2019. Assessing the complex relationship between landscape, gene flow, and range expansion of a Mediterranean carnivore. European Journal of Wildlife Research 65(3): 44.

Beaumont, M.A. & Rannala, B. 2004. The Bayesian revolution in genetics. Nature Reviews Genetics 5(4): 251.

Castric, V., Bonney, F. & Bernatchez, L. 2001. Landscape structure and hierarchical genetic diversity in the brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis. Evolution 55(5): 1016-1028.

Chen, C., Durand, E., Forbes, F. & François, O. 2007. Bayesian clustering algorithms ascertaining spatial population structure: a new computer program and a comparison study. Molecular Ecology Notes 7(5): 747-756.

Childs, C. 2004. Interpolating surfaces in ArcGIS spatial analyst. ArcUser, July-September, 3235, 569.

Condit, R., Ashton, P.S., Baker, P., Bunyavejchewin, S., Gunatilleke S. & Yamakura, T. 2000. Spatial patterns in the distribution of tropical tree species. Science 288(5470): 1414-1418.

Corander, J., Waldmann, P., Marttinen, P. & Sillanpaa, M. 2004. BAPS 2: enhanced possibilities for the analysis of genetic population structure. Bioinformatics 20: 2363-2369.

Craft, K.J. & Ashley, M.V. 2007. Landscape genetic structure of bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) savannas in Illinois. Forest Ecology and Management 239(1-3): 13-20.

Crandall, K.A., Bininda-Emonds, O.R., Mace, G.M. & Wayne, R.K. 2000. Considering evolutionary processes in conservation biology. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 15(7): 290-295.

Crida, A. & Manel, S. 2007. WOMBSOFT: an R package that implements the Wombling method to identify genetic boundary. Molecular Ecology Notes 7(4): 588-591.

Cushman, S.A., McKelvey, K.S., Hayden, J. & Schwartz, M.K. 2006. Gene flow in complex landscapes: testing multiple hypotheses with causal modeling. The American Naturalist 168(4): 486-499.

Dawson, K.J. & Belkhir, K. 2001. A Bayesian approach to the identification of panmictic populations and the assignment of individuals. Genetics Research 78(1): 59-77.

dos Anjos Oliveira, J., Farias, I.P., Costa, G.C. & Werneck, F.P. 2019. Model-based riverscape genetics: disentangling the roles of local and connectivity factors in shaping spatial genetic patterns of two Amazonian turtles with different dispersal abilities. Evolutionary Ecology 33(2): 273-298.

Eckert, A.J., Bower, A.D., González-Martínez, S.C., Wegrzyn, J.L., Coop, G. & Neale, D. B. 2010. Back to nature: ecological genomics of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda, Pinaceae). Mol. Ecol. 19(17): 3789-3805.

Epps, C.W. & Keyghobadi, N. 2015. Landscape genetics in a changing world: disentangling historical and contemporary influences and inferring change. Mol. Ecol. 24(24): 6021-6040.

Epps, C.W., Palsb ll, P.J., Wehausen, J.D., Roderick, G.K., Ramey II, R.R. & McCullough, D.R. 2005. Highways block gene flow and cause a rapid decline in genetic diversity of desert bighorn sheep. Ecol. Lett. 8: 1029-1038.

Fahrig, L. 2002. Effect of habitat fragmentation on the extinction threshold: a synthesis. Ecological Applications 12: 346-353.

Ferrier, S., Manion, G., Elith, J. & Richardson, K. 2007. Using generalized dissimilarity modelling to analyse and predict patterns of beta diversity in regional biodiversity assessment. Diversity and distributions 13(3): 252-264.

François, O., Ancelet, S. & Guillot, G. 2006. Bayesian clustering using hidden Markov random fields in spatial population genetics. Genetics 174(2): 805-816.

Frantz, A.C., Bertouille, S., Eloy, M.C., Licoppe, A., Chaumont, F. & Flamand, M. C. 2012. Comparative landscape genetic analysis show a Belgian motorway to be a gene flow barrier for red deer (Cervus elaphus), but not wild boars (Sus scrofa). Molecular Ecology 21(14): 3445-3457.

Futuyma, D. & Kirkpatrick, M. 2018. Evolution. Oxford University Press, Fourth Edition, Oxford, UK.

García, C. 2019. Integrando demografía y genética a través de la genética del paisaje. Revista Ecosistemas 28(2): 75-90.

Garrido-Garduño, T. & Vázquez-Domínguez, E. 2013. Métodos de análisis genéticos, espaciales y de conectividad en genética del paisaje. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 84: 1031-1054.

Goldberg, C.S. & Waits, L.P. 2010. Comparative landscape genetics of two pond-breeding amphibian species in a highly modified agricultural landscape. Mol. Ecol. 19(17): 3650-3663.

Gu, W., Heikkilä, R. & Hansk, I. 2002. Estimating the consequences of habitat fragmentation on extinction risk in dynamic landscapes. Landscape Ecology 17: 699-710.

Guajardo, R., Schnabel, A., Ennos, R., Preuss, S., Otero-Arnaiz, A. & Stone, G. 2010. Landscape genetics of the key African acacia species Senegalia mellifera (Vahl)–the importance of the Kenyan Rift Valley. Mol. Ecol. 19(23): 5126-5139.

Guillot, G., Mortier, F. & Estoup, A. 2005. GENELAND: a computer package for landscape genetics. Mol. Ecol. notes 5(3): 712-715.

Hall, L.A. & Beissinger, S.R. 2014. A practical toolbox for design and analysis of landscape genetics studies. Landscape Ecology 29(9): 1487-1504.

Hantak, M.M., Page, R.B., Converse, P.E., Anthony, C.D., Hickerson, C.A. M. & Kuchta, S.R. 2019. Do genetic structure and landscape heterogeneity impact color morph frequency in a polymorphic salamander? Ecography doi: [10.1111/ecog.04534]

Hassall, C. & Thompson, D.J. 2012. Study design and mark recapture estimates of dispersal: a case study with the endangered damselfly Coenagrion mercuriale. Journal of Insect Conservation 16(1): 111-120.

Hirao, A.S. & Kudo, G. 2004. Landscape genetics of alpine-snowbed plants: comparisons along geographic and snowmelt gradients. Heredity 93(3): 290.

Holderegger, R. & Wagner, H.H. 2008. Landscape genetics. Bioscience 58(3): 199-207.

Honnay, O. & Jacquemyn, H. 2007. Susceptibility of Common and Rare Plant Species to the Genetic Consequences of Habitat Fragmentation. Conservation Biology 21(3): 823-831.

Hughes, A.R., Inouye, B.D., Johnson, M.T.J., Underwood, N. & Vellend, M. 2008. Ecological consequences of genetic diversity. Ecology Letters 11: 609-623.

Isaaks, E.H. & Srivastava, M.R. 1989. Applied geostatistics (No. 551.72 ISA).

Jacquemyn, H., Honnay, O., Galbusera, P. & Roldán-Ruiz, I. 2004. Genetic structure of the forest herb Primula elatior in a changing landscape. Mol. Ecol. 13(1): 211-219.

Jombart, T., Devillard, S., Dufour, A.B. & Pontier, D. 2008. Revealing cryptic spatial patterns in genetic variability by a new multivariate method. Heredity 101(1): 92.

Kamm, U., Rotach, P., Gugerli, F., Siroky, M., Edwards, P. & Holderegger, R. 2009. Frequent long-distance gene flow in a rare temperate forest tree (Sorbus domestica) at the landscape scale. Heredity 103(6): 476.

Keller, D., Holderegger, R. & van Strien, M.J. 2013. Spatial scale affects landscape genetic analysis of a wetland grasshopper. Mol. Ecol. 22(9): 2467-2482.

Keyghobadi, N., Roland, J. & Strobeck, C. 1999. Influence of landscape on the population genetic structure of the alpine butterfly Parnassius smintheus (Papilionidae). Mol. Ecol. 8(9): 1481-1495.

Keyghobadi, N., Roland, J., Matter, S.F. & Strobeck, C. 2005. Among

and within patch components of genetic diversity respond at different

rates to habitat fragmentation: an empirical demonstration. Proceedings

of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 272(1562): 553-560.

Landguth, E.L. & Schwartz, M.K. 2014. Evaluating sample allocation and effort in detecting population differentiation for discrete and continuously distributed individuals. Conservation Genetics 15(4): 981-992.

Landguth, E.L., Cushman, S.A., Schwartz, M.K., McKelvey, K.S., Murphy, M. & Luikart, G. 2010. Quantifying the lag time to detect barriers in landscape genetics. Mol. Ecol. 19(19): 4179-4191.

Leblois, R., Estoup, A. & Rousset, F. 2009. IBDSim: a computer program to simulate genotypic data under isolation by distance. Molecular Ecology Resources 9(1): 107-109.

Legendre, P. & Fortin, M.J. 2010 Comparison of the Mantel test and alternative approaches for detecting complex multivariate relationships in the spatial analysis of genetic data. Molecular Ecology Resources 10: 831-844.

Legendre, P. & Troussellier, M. 1988. Aquatic heterotrophic bacteria: modeling in the presence of spatial autocorrelation. Limnology and Oceanography 33(5): 1055-1067.

Liepelt, S., Bialozyt, R. & Ziegenhagen, B. 2002. Wind-dispersed pollen mediates postglacial gene flow among refugia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99(22): 14590-14594.

Luikart, G., England, P.R., Tallmon, D., Jordan, S. & Taberlet, P. 2003. The power and promise of population genomics: from genotyping to genome typing. Nature reviews genetics 4(12): 981-994.

Manel, S. & Holderegger, R. 2013. Ten years of landscape genetics. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 28(10): 614-621.

Manel, S., Gaggiotti, O.E. & Waples, R.S. 2005. Assignment methods: matching biological questions with appropriate techniques. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 20(3): 136-142.

Manel, S., Poncet, B.N., Legendre, P., Gugerlis, F. & Holderegger, R. 2010. Common factors drive adaptive genetic variation at different spatial scales in Arabis alpina. Mol. Ecol. 19: 3824-3835.

Manel, S., Schwartz, M.K., Luikart, G. & Taberlet, P. 2003. Landscape genetics: combining landscape ecology and population genetics. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 18(4): 189-197.

Manni, F., Guerard, E. & Heyer, E. 2004. Geographic patterns of (genetic, morphologic, linguistic) variation: how barriers can be detected by using Monmonier’s algorithm. Human biology 76(2): 173-190.

Martins, K., Gugger, P.F., Llanderal-Mendoza, J., González-Rodríguez, A., Fitz-Gibbon, S.T., Zhao, J.L. & Sork, V.L. 2018. Landscape genomics provides evidence of climate-associated genetic variation in Mexican opulations of Quercus rugosa. Evolutionary Applications 11(10): 1842-1858.

Mateo-Sánchez, M.C., Balkenhol, N., Cushman, S., Pérez, T., Domínguez, A. & Saura, S. 2015. A comparative framework to infer landscape effects on population genetic structure: are habitat suitability models effective in explaining gene flow? Landscape Ecology 30(8): 1405-1420.

Michels, E., Cottenie, K., Neys, L., De Gelas, K., Coppin, P. & De Meester, L. 2001. Geographical and genetic distances among zooplankton populations in a set of interconnected ponds: a plea for using GIS modelling of the effective geographical distance. Mol. Ecol. 10(8): 1929-1938.

Miller, M.P. 2005. Alleles In Space (AIS): computer software for the joint analysis of interindividual spatial and genetic information. Journal of Heredity 96(6): 722-724.

Monmonier, M.S. 1973. Maximum-difference barriers: an alternative numerical regionalization method. Geographical analysis 5(3): 245-261.

Monteiro, W.P., Veiga, J.C., Silva, A.R., Carvalho, C.S., Lanes, E.C.M., Rico, Y. & Jaffé, R. 2019. Everything you always wanted to know about gene flow in tropical landscape (but were afraid to ask). PeerJ 7: e6446.

Moritz, C. 1994. Defining ‘evolutionarily significant units’ for conservation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 9 (10): 373-375.

Pavlacky Jr, D.C., Goldizen, A.W., Prentis, P.J., Nicholls, J.A. & Lowe, A.J. 2009. A landscape genetics approach for quantifying the relative influence of historic and contemporary habitat heterogeneity on the genetic connectivity of a rainforest bird. Molecular Ecology 18(14): 2945-2960.

Pimm, S.L. & Raven, P. 2000 Biodiversity - extinction by numbers. Nature 403: 843–845.

Pritchard, J.K., Stephens, M. & Donnelly, P. 2000. Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data. Genetics 155(2): 945-959.

Ray, N. 2005. PATHMATRIX: a geographical information system tool to compute effective distances among samples. Molecular Ecology Notes 5(1): 177-180.

Richardson, J.L., Brady, S.P., Wang, I.J. & Spear, S.F. 2016. Navigating the pitfalls and promise of landscape genetics. Mol. Ecol. 25(4): 849-863.

Rico, Y. 2019. Landscape genetics of Mexican biodiversity: A review. Acta Universitaria 29: e1894.

Schoville, S.D., Bonin, A., François, O., Lobreaux, S., Melodelima, C. & Manel, S. 2012. Adaptive genetic variation on the landscape: methods and cases. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 43: 23-43.

Scribner, K.T., Blanchong, J.A., Bruggeman, D.J., Epperson, B.K., LEE, C.Y., PAN, Y.W., & Luukkonen, D.R. 2005. Geographical genetics: conceptual foundations and empirical applications of spatial genetic data in wildlife management. The Journal of wildlife management 69(4): 1434-1453.

Shimizu-Inatsugi, R.I. E., Lihova, J., Iwanaga, H., Kudoh, H., Marhold, K., Savolainen, O. & Shimizu, K.K. 2009. The allopolyploid Arabidopsis kamchatica originated from multiple individuals of Arabidopsis lyrata and Arabidopsis halleri. Mol. Ecol. 18(19): 4024-4048.

Shirk, A.J., Landguth, E.L. & Cushman, S.A. 2018. A comparison of regression methods for model selection in individual-based landscape genetic analysis. Molecular Ecology Resources 18(1): 55-67.

Smouse, P.E., Long, J.C. & Sokal, R.R. 1986. Multiple regression and correlation extensions of the Mantel test of matrix correspondence. Systematic zoology 35(4): 627-632.

Sokal, R.R. & Thomson, B.A. 1998. Spatial genetic structure of human populations in Japan. Human biology 1-22.

Sork, V.L., Davis, F.W., Westfall, R., Flint, A., Ikegami, M., Wang, H. & Grivet, D. 2010. Gene movement and genetic association with regional climate gradients in California valley oak (Quercus lobata noe) in the face of climate change. Mol. Ecol. 19: 3806-3823.

Storfer, A., Murphy, M.A., Evans, J.S., Goldberg, C.S., Robinson, S., Spear, S.F. & Waits, L.P. 2007. Putting the ‘landscape’ in landscape genetics. Heredity 98(3): 128.

Storfer, A., Murphy, M.A., Spear, S.F., Holderegger, R. & Waits, L.P. 2010. Landscape genetics: where are we now? Mol. Ecol. 19(17): 3496-3514.

Taylor, P.D., Fahrig, L., Henein, K. & Merriam, G. 1993. Connectivity is a vital element of landscape structure. Oikos 68: 571-573.

Van Strien, M.J., Holderegger, R. & Van Heck, H.J. 2015. Isolationby- distance in landscapes: considerations for landscape genetics. Heredity 114: 27-37.

Van Strien, M.J., Keller, D. & Holderegger, R. 2012. A new analytical approach to landscape genetic modelling: Least-cost transect analysis and linear mixed models. Mol. Ecol. 21(16): 4010-4023.

Vandepitte, K., Jacquemyn, H., Roldán-Ruiz, I. & Honnay, O. 2007. Landscape genetics of the self-compatible forest herb Geum urbanum: effects of habitat age, fragmentation and local environment. Mol. Ecol. 16(19): 4171-4179.

Wang, I.J. 2013. Examining the full effects of landscape heterogeneity on spatial genetic variation: a multiple matrix regression approach for quantifying geographic and ecological isolation. Evolution 67(12): 3403-3411.

Womble, W.H. 1951. Differential systematics. Science 114(2961): 315-322.

Wright, S. 1943 Isolation by distance. Genetics 28: 114-138.

Zalewski, A., Piertney, S.B., Zalewska, H. & Lambin, X. 2009. Landscape barriers reduce gene flow in an invasive carnivore: geographical and local genetic structure of American mink in Scotland. Mol. Ecol. 18(8): 1601-1615.


Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.


Copyright (c) 2020 Majela Hernández Rodríguez

Licencia de Creative Commons
Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento 4.0 Internacional.

Para suscribirse a la revista o enviar un manuscrito para publicar utilice las direcciones:

revistajbn@jbn.uh.cu o revistajbn@gmail.com

ISSN 0253-5696 RNPS 0060 (IMPRESA)

ISSN 2410-5546 RNPS 2372 (DIGITAL)